Environmental Science and Engineering (Anna University)

ISBN: 9789350386248
Edition: III
Pages: 280

Environment, Ecosystems and Biodiversity   
Definition, Scope and importance of environment - Need for public awareness - Concept of an ecosystem, Structure and function of an ecosystem - Producers, Consumers and decomposers - Energy flow in the ecosystem - Ecological succession - Food chains, Food webs and ecological pyramids - Introduction, Types, Characteristic features, Structure and function of the a) Forest ecosystem b) Grassland ecosystem  c) Desert ecosystem d) Aquatic ecosystems (Ponds, Streams, Lakes, Rivers, Oceans, Estuaries) - Introduction to biodiversity definiton : Genetic, Species and ecosystem diversity - Biogeographical classification of India - Value of biodiversity: Consumptive use, Productive use, Social, Ethical, Aesthetic and option values, Biodiversity at global, National and local levels - India as a mega-diversity nation - Hot-spots of biodiversity - Threats to biodiversity: Habitat loss, Poaching of wildlife, Man-wildlife conflicts - Endangered and endemic species of India - Conservation of biodiversity: in-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
Field study of common plants, Insects, Birds
FField study of simple ecosystems - Pond, River, Hill slopes, etc.

Environmental Pollution
Definition - Causes, Effects and control measures of : a) Air pollution b) Water pollution c) Soil pollution  d) Marine pollution e) Noise pollution f) Thermal pollution g) Nuclear hazards - Soil waste management: Causes, Effects and control measures of municipal solid wastes - Role of an individual in prevention of pollution - Pollution case studies - Disaster management: Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone and landslides.
Field study of local polluted site - Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural.

Natural Resources  
Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, Deforestation, Case studies, Timber extraction, Mining, Dams and their effects on forests and tribal people - Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, Floods, Drought, Conflicts over water, Dams-benefits and problems - Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, Environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, Case studies - Food resources: World food problems, Changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, Effects of modern agriculture, Fertilizer-pesticide problems, Water logging, Salinity, Case studies - Energy resources: Growing energy needs, Renewable and non renewable energy sources, Use of alternate energy sources. Case studies - Land resources: Land as a resource, Land degradation, Man induced landslides, Soil erosion and desertification - Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources - Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.
Field study of local area to document environmental assets - River / Forest / Grassland / Hill / Mountain.

Social Issues and the Environment    
From unsustainable to sustainable development - Urban problems related to energy - Water conservation, Rain water harvesting, Watershed management - Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; Its problems and concerns, Case studies - Role of non-governmental organization - Environmental ethics : Issues and possible solutions - Climate change, Global warming, Acid rain, Ozone layer depletion, Nuclear accidents and holocaust, Case studies - Wasteland reclamation - Consumerism and waste products - Environment production act - Air (Prevention and control of pollution) act - Water (Prevention and control of pollution) act - Wildlife protection act - Forest conservation act - Enforcement machinery involved in environmental legislation - Central and state pollution control boards - Public awareness.

Human Population and the Environment   
Population growth, Variation among nations - Population explosion - Family welfare programme - Environment and human health - Human rights - Value education - HIV/AIDS - Women and child welfare - Role of information technology in environment and human health - Case studies.

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